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In the course of ” Introduction to Hardware Security “, we will discuss the role of system security function and the operation practice through market application overview and system service cases such as cryptocurrency, mobile payment, secure supply chain. Also, everyone should be aware of the importance of anti-hacking protection.
The course is mainly divided into 3 parts:
- Market Applications
- Security SoC Operation
- Hardware Root of Trust
The first of all is to give you a whole picture of software and hardware security and their application markets. The second part will dive into the key software and hardware designs in the system and the considerations of security function deployment. In the third part, we will discuss about the importance of “root of trust” from the foundation of product design. You will learn the theory of physical unclonable function (PUF) and the related technology and application.
You could watch the course video directly. If you would like to have handouts as well, please go down this page and fill out the form for the password.
Part I. Market Applications
Chapter 1 : Introduction to Hardware Security
1. Application Market
2. Software vs. Hardware Security
3. PUF Introduction
Part II. Security SoC Operation
Chapter 2 : Introduction to Security SoC
2-1 Designing Chip with Security (I)
1. Market Application and Security Demand
2. How Chip Security Works
2-2 Designing Chip with Security (II)
1. Basic of Cryptography
2. Security SoC Cases
2-3 Security Operation in SoC
1. Security SoC Cases
2. Commercial Cases
Chapter 3 : Introduction to Cryptography & SCA Experiment
3-1 Implementation of Crypto Chips and Attack Models
1. Hardware Security: Internet of Vehicle
2. Cryptanalysis and Power Analysis Attacks
Practice: Wifi Cracking
3-2 AES Implementation and Power Analysis
1. Algorithm Specification
2. Mode of Operations
3. Implementation Architecture
4. Power Analysis Attacks
Practice: Side Channel Attack – Simple Power Analysis
3-3 ECC Implementation and Power Analysis
2. Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication (ECSM)
3. Implementation Architecture
4. Power Analysis Attacks
Practice: Side Channel Attack – Differential Power Analysis
Chapter 4 : Introduction to Malicious Attack
4-1 What Is Side Channel Attack and How To Prevent?
4-2 What Is Physical Attack (Tampering) and How To Prevent?
Part III. Hardware Root of Trust
Chapter 5 : Introduction to Root of Trust
5-1 Root of Trust by Software and Hardware
5-2 Why Inborn Root of Trust?
Chapter 6 : Physical Unclonable Function (PUF)
6-1 What is PUF?
6-2 Different kinds of On Chip PUFs
6-3 Applications of PUF
For the mid-term project of the semester, students were asked to study carefully on Libra blockchain. The topics they worked on ranges from the theoretical background of Libra all the way to implementing transactions hands on. Below lists the assigned topics and corresponding reference materials.
I. How does Libra prevent double spending attack?
This topic is closely related to LibraBFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) introduced in the following paper.
II. How is the Libra blockchain modeled and executed?
This topic requires understanding to the newly introduced programming language Move
The paper above covers the following:
- A programming model suitable for blockchain execution
- A bytecode language Move that fits this programmable model
- The Module System and Library Operations of Move
- The Move virtual machine to execute and log transactions
III. How is Libra’s data structure different from Bitcoin and Ethereum?
Students are expected to introduce the Merkle Tree and read papers on Bitcoin and Ethereum in detail
- Bitcoin uses the original Merkle Tree
https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf section 7
- The data structure used by Ethereum for records is revised (as in Appendix D of http://gavwood.com/paper.pdf )
IV. Life of a Transaction with Demo
Students will nead to read the content of the following documents and then demonstrate a transaction after implementing themselves (Linux environment or macOS is required)
V. The hashing, signing, the Key derivation and Key generation in Libra
This topic mainly echoes the Readme, Crypto page of Libra https://developers.libra.org/docs/crates/crypto
Students should study and then report in detail how the following functions are carried out in Libra Blockchain:
- Hashing: SHA-3: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.202.pdf
- Signing New signing standard EdDSA: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8032
- Key generation Curve-25519 DH from Noise protocol http://www.noiseprotocol.org/noise.html chapter 12
- Key Derivation HKDF: Based on HMAC: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5869
For the final project of semester, students were asked to extend and expand from topics they’ve learned throughout the course. They are encouraged to exhibit their design or ideas in practice. The subject students studied are mostly related to PUF, while a group dealt with security issues of Automobiles and side channel attacks on crypto algorithms.
Topics presented include:
I. Application of CAN-BUS and its encryption
– Data frame and instruction
– Demo of CAN-BUS communication
– Message Authentication Codes
II. A novel RRAM PUF-design
– NVM & PUF Introduction
– Proposed NVM PUF scheme and high-level mechanism
– Simulation result
III. Emerging Physical Unclonable Functions with Nanotechnology
State-of-art PUF challenges and advantages of nanotechnology
How PUF works and its vulnerability
Development and application of nanotechnology PUF
Potential applications of PUF
IV. Case Study of PUF implementation in FPGAs
– Delay Based PUFs structure comparison
– A new RO PUF design & FPGA implementation
– Experiment & Performance analysis
V. Side channel attacks on AES
The round transformations of AES
Correlation power analysis demonstration & results
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